Article Centre

Celebrating Womanhood...

Menstruation Cycle in Women– the Chronicles of the cycles within a cycle.

Menstruation Cycle in Women– the Chronicles of the cycles within a cycle.

Menstruation Cycle in Women – the Chronicles of the cycles within a cycle.

Mensuration Cycle in Women is an RTWI knowledge pack on the need to know basis as it concerns women and mensuration.

The journey of a Girl Child to womanhood is not the usually complete without the corresponding discuss of journey from womanhood to Motherhood.

Menstruation Cycle in Women defines this great journey from womanhood to motherhood.

Menstruation Cycle in Women – Explaining the Cycle

Mensuration Cycle in women is a complete topic on its own and a wheel by which other reproductive factors take root.

Menstruation Cycle in Women is often called the weeping of the Uterus due to lack of pregnancy.

The reproductive organ of every woman in reproductive age undergoes periodic changes in readiness for a possible conception.

This starts with the preparation of the lining of the womb to receive a fetus.

According to Professor Derek Llewellyn – Jones (OBE, MD, MAO, FRCOG, FRACOG) who also authored the book Every Woman, he wrote that events leading to menstruation Cycle in women is a complicated one.

He further says that the best way of understanding this is to start from what happens between one Menstruation Cycle in women to the other.

The art and science of understanding what happens between one Menstruation Cycle in women and the other is the basis for Menstruation Calculator or Menstrual Calculator.

Menstruation Cycle in Women

Menstruation Calculator or Menstrual Calculator

Menstruation Calculator or Menstrual Calculator is a manual or electronics means (Menstruation Calculator Apps) of calculating Menstruation Cycle in Women.

This calculation is done with respect to duration, signs and symptoms of this Period Cycle in Women.

It equally includes calculation of the cycles with the Menstrual Cycle which includes ovulation and its duration, signs and symptoms too using manual or Electronic means.

See Ovulation Calculator / Fertility Calculator below.

Professor Derek Llewellyn – Jones (OBE, MD, MAO, FRCOG, FRACOG) maintains that the hypothalamus, which is the brain part that sees to Emotions, is in charge of Menstruation Cycle in Women.

This takes us straight to the first phase of Menstruation Cycle in Women which is Ovulation.


The exalted Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics teaches that during Menstruation Cycle in Women, the Hypothalamus causes the stimulation of cells in Pituitary Gland by secreting GnRH.

This causes the formation of the FSH. The FHS continues to increase thereby stimulating egg follicles in the Ovary.

This follicles grow in size and in Estrogen. The later (Estrogen) sees to the stimulation of the lining for its continual growth.

This aspect of the Menstruation Cycle in Women is called Proliferative Phase of the Cycle. This is so because during this phase, the lining is made of narrow tubes known as Endometrial Glands.

This Endometrial Gland is set in layers of cells called Endometrial Stromal Cells.

Estrogen makes this Endometrial Gland to grow as the layers of the stromal cells increase or proliferate.

The growth of the follicles thus stimulated causes further increases of Estrogen in the blood.

Menstruation Cycle in Women


Due to the rising blood a level, the hypothalamus receives a “Feedback Effect”, which caused the reduction of the FSH – releasing Hormone.

The reduction in FSH triggers the release of another hormone called the LH – releasing hormone.

The LH – releasing hormone is carried down from the Hypothalamus to the Pituitary Gland where it causes specialized cells to produce a substance known as Luteinizing Hormone (LH).

The  Luteinizing Hormone (LH) thus produced is responsible for the bursting of the egg follicle and the egg therein released.

Menstruation Cycle in Women

The period at which the follicle bursts and the egg is released till the moment the life span of the egg expires is what is called Peak Ovulation

The entire process of  the secretion of the necessary hormones by the hypothalamus to the release and expiration the egg’s life span is called Ovulation Cycle.

The Ovulation Cycle is called a cycle within cycle because although it ends, the Menstruation Cycle in women continues.

This leads us to the question, “What is Ovulation?”

The answer to the question, “what is ovulation?” is that it is the release of egg (Ovum) or eggs (Ova) by the follicles housed in the Ovary due to the effect of the Luteinizing releasing hormone on the follicle.

This means that the long awaited egg is now available for fertilization.

The Luteinizing Hormone got its name from the Latin word “Luteus” which means yellow.

This is simply because it changes the cells of the follicle to bright yellow color.

Finally on Ovulation, the above process answers the question, “When do women ovulate?”

The answer to the question, “when do women ovulate?” is that it is when the hypothalamus is stimulated to secret the Luteinizing Hormone.  This causes the follicle housed in the Ovary to burst thereby releasing the egg (Ovum) or eggs (Ova).

This usually occurs half way into the Menstrual Cycle which means that on average basis for a woman that do 28 days Menstruation Cycle, ovulation will be around the 14th day from the last Menstrual Cycle.

Menstruation Flow/Menstrual Flow

The releasing of the of the egg (Ovum) causes the empty follicle to collapse while the Luteinizing Hormone acts on the cells of its wall thereby turning them yellow.

The collapsed Follicle is called Yellow Body aka (Corpus Luteum) in Latin.

Although the Yellow Body is in a collapsed state, it continues to secrete Estrogen.

In addition to this estrogen, the Yellow Body also secrets Progesterone which serves these purposes:

  • It prepares the Uterus for Pregnancy.
  • It relaxes smooth muscles involuntary.
  • It thickens the lining of the Uterus
  • It induces the Glands to become succulent by secreting a nutritious fluid. This is for the nourishment of the fertilized egg.
  • It increases the production of the skin wax secretion

The later explains the reason for the high temperature often experienced during Menstruation Cycle in Women.

This phase in Menstrual Cycle after Ovulation is called the Luteal or Progestational Phase.

The aim of this whole process is for fertilization to take place and a life to begin. When this fails, the implant on to the Endometrium fails and the Yellow Body dies.

The moment the Yellow Body in the Ovary dies, the following will happen:

  • The level of Estrogen in the blood will fall
  • The level of Progesterone in the blood will fall
  • The restraint the Hypothalamus placed on the Gonado-trophin releasing hormone (GnRH) will be removed.
  • There will be increment in the FSH production by the Pituitary Gland
  • The thick, juicy and succulent of the Uterus will begin to shrink due to cut in Estrogen and Progesterone.
  • This will lead to the kinking of the tiny blood vessels that sees to the supply of the Estrogen and Progesterone.
  • Due to the kinking of this blood vessels (Blood Capillaries), there is break up of these blood vessels which leads to the bleeding in the deeper layer of the lining.
  • The lining will be separated above the blood due to this occurrence. Furthermore the lining will crumble and shed into the cavity of the uterus from the endometrium.
  • With the continual flow of these blood into the cavity of the uterus, the contraction of the uterus sees to the expulsion of same via the vagina.
  • This discharge is what many calls Mensuration.

Once there is no fertilization at the end of the Cycle, the lining crumbles away and mixes with blood.

These two now flow out together via the vagina as menstrual flow.

Another name for Menstruation Cycle in Women is Period Cycle in women. This means that Menstruation Cycle or Menstrual Cycle can equally be called Period Cycle.

This is a case of one thing bearing three names.

Signs of Ovulation

The following are the signs of Ovulation:

  • A positive result with Ultrasound which clearly show that the follicle has broken and the egg released. This is done using advanced Ultrasound Techniques.
  • High level of Luteinizing Hormone which causes the follicle to break and releases the egg.
  • Slight pain / Cramp in the lower abdomen .
  • Fluctuation of the Basal Temperature which is usually high at this moment.
  • Ovulation test will read positive
  • The discharge of fertile cervical mucus clearer and similar to Egg White
  • Increased desire for sex
  • Vagina / Vulva swells up a little
  • Possible change in the skin color based on individual Body. Some looks shinier while some appears dull.


Irregularities Associated with Menstruation Cycle in Women

Menstruation Cycle in women is a periodic event that lasts through the reproductive years of a woman.

However there are circumstances that can put a hold on Menstruation thereby introducing either a temporary stop or obvious irregularities.

These circumstances are:

  • Pregnancy: – This usually puts a temporary hold on the Menstruation Cycle in women from the period of conception to the period of Breast Feeding. Though this varies in women.
  • Adolescence Age: – The adolescent age is mostly associated with irregular cycle due to hormonal imbalance. The Girl Child should be taken to a doctor for hormonal treatment. Through such treatment, the adolescent Girl Child menstruation period will be established.
  • Menopause: – Generally, as it concerns menstruation cycle in women during menopause, the endometrium is only stimulated by Estrogen in which only the FSH is secreted.
  • Self-Starvation: This causes a problem known as Anorexia Nervosa.This happens when ladies starve themselves in other to get slim. It can also happen due to intense psychological issues. Efficient eating to restore body weight will equally nullify the menstrual cycle irregularity.

The Concept of the Fertility Calculator and Fertility Calendar

The topic Menstruation Cycle in Women will not be complete if we fail to discuss the following:

  • Fertility Calculator
  • Fertility Calendar

Another name for Fertility Calculator is Ovulation Calculator.

Fertility Calculator (Ovulation Calculator) is a manual or electronics means (Fertility Calculator Apps) of calculating a woman’s Ovulation period with respect to peak Ovulation period.

This also includes seeking to know the woman’s fertile period in days for child sex selection. The later is for those that need either male child or Girl Child.

For this to be achieved, a fertility calendar is created. This is nothing else but the employment of the use of calendar to chat one’s menstrual cycle.

If properly charted, a date for the following will spotted on the fertility calendar based on the fertility calculation carried out using the fertility calculator concept.

  • The commencement date for the Menstrual Cycle in Women.
  • The end date for the Menstrual Cycle in Women
  • The ovulation dates
  • The Peak Ovulation Period
  • The safe period when sex cannot lead to pregnancy

Manual Example on how using Fertility Calendar and Fertility Calculator.

September 2019 Calendar

sun Mon Tue Wed Thur Friday Sat
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30          


The following are to be observed while using Fertility Calendar and Fertility Calculator manually:

  • Create a calendar for this purpose. You can make one or buy and calendar
  • Observe your period for a month.
  • Mark the commandment date and the end date of the Menstrual Cycle in Women
  • Wait till the next period to ascertain if these dates especially commencement date is static or varies.
  • If it is static then the period is said to be normal.
  • If the period is far above or far below the commencement date and it does not have a rhythm then it is termed irregular.
  • The regular lasts for 28 days. Those above 28 days are considered to be longer cycles while those that below 28 days are called shorter cycles.
  • Shorter cycles range from 24 days, 25 days, 26 days as the case may be while longer cycles can be from 30 days to 31 days, 32 days as the case may be too.
  • Usually, as obtained from point of practice, ovulation usually takes place halfway within the Menstruation Cycle in Women.
  • People with 28 days cycle have their ovulation on the 14 day.

RTWI advises that Ultrasound should be not be neglected in this whole exercise for clarity of purpose.




One Comments

  1. October 6, 2019

    […] Some women have lumpier breasts around the time of menstrual cycle in women. […]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Related Posts

Enter your keyword